Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics in chemical engineering are to determine the states of phase and chemical equilibrium necessary for the design of separations processes (i.e., distillation, absorption, extraction, etc.) and chemical reactors, and in determining the thermodynamic efficiency of chemical processes. Change of state of a thermodynamic system results from existence of gradients of various types within or across its boundary. Thus, a gradient of pressure results in momentum or convective mass transport. Temperature gradients result in heat transfer, while a gradient of concentration promotes diffusive mass transfer. Thus, if internal or cross-boundary gradients of any form as above exist with respect to a thermodynamic system it will undergo change of state in time.